Android.Content.Res.Resources+NotFoundException: Resource ID #0x0

I've just created a simple MasterDetailPage and in the code I inserted an icon for the left page with:

public MainPage() {
    InitializeComponent();

    BackgroundColor = Color.FromHex("#007acc");
    Icon = "settings.png";
}

I tried to deploy my app on an Android emulator but I can't deploy it because Android.Content.Res.Resources+NotFoundException: Resource ID #0x0.

I checked everthing and evething seemed fine. The problem is the icon!

You have to remove Icon from the code and in the XAML page type the following code:

  <ContentPage.Icon>
    <OnPlatform x:TypeArguments="FileImageSource">
      <OnPlatform.iOS>settings.png</OnPlatform.iOS>
    </OnPlatform>
  </ContentPage.Icon>

Happy coding!

How to deploy an Universal Windows Project on real device mobile?

I'm trying to debbuging my app on real device (lumia 830 with windows 10 mobile 10.0.10581.0) Developer Mode is ON on both devices (mobile and PC), but when I'm deploying my app on my device I've got an error (DEP6100 and DEP6200). Howevere i can easily emulate on emulators and my PC, couldn’t understand whats the problem.

I googled a bit and I discovered how to resolve the problem.

Visual-Studio-2105-Deploy-Real-Device

  • Create a Registry Key in: [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SirepClient] (Probably you will need to create it)
  • Create a dword with name "DisableProtocol3" and value 00000001
  • Restart Visual Studio and try deploying the solution back again.

It's a provisional solution meanwhile a patch is included in Windows 10 mobile. We will have to consider deleting this key after that.

If you want to inspect your device, connect your device via USB and open a browser and type

https://127.0.0.1:10443

And you can watch your device in action!

Windows 10 Device – Home

Windows-10-Device-Home

Windows 10 Device – App Manager

Windows-10-Device-AppManager

Windows 10 Device – File Explorer

Windows-10-Device-FileExplorer

Windows 10 Device – Processes

Windows-10-Device-Processes

Windows 10 Device – Performances (in real time!)

Windows-10-Device-Performances

Visual Studio updates Xamarin

When you open Visual Studio 2015 and there is a pop windows to invite you to click on it for updating Xamarin and you click, nothing happends. There is a bug but clicking the update available popup was fixed in one of the recent releases. You can manually update in the Options menu under Tools.

As for the errors, I get those all the time. Support packages can often be a problem. Update to the latest XF package. Try deleting bin, obj, and the contents of packages folders and rebuild.

Visual-Studio-Update-Xamarin

Installing Google Play Services in the Microsoft Visual Studio Android Emulator

Installing the Google Play Services in Microsoft’s Visual Studio Android Emulator that comes with Visual Studio 2015 is easy to do. This installs the Google Play store and related services, which makes it possible to install other apps to your Android image.

  1. Download the Google Apps package from the Team Android site. Make sure that you match the version of the apps to the version of Android that your emulator is for. The default emulator is for Kit Kat, but this also works for Lollipop.
  2. Start the Microsoft Visual Studio Android Emulator
  3. Start the Android virtual machine that matches the version of the apps that you downloaded for (default would be Kit Kat).
  4. Unlock the Android VM so you get to the home screen
  5. Drag and drop the downloaded Google Apps package in to the Android VM. You will get a prompt to install the apps that looks like this: Install-Goople-Play-Microsoft-Android-Emulator
  6. Select the “Install and Shut Down” option.
  7. Start the VM again
  8. Click the All Apps button in Android and you will see the Google Play store.
  9. When you open the Google Play store, you will need to login with your Google account and make a new one.

Once you have the Google Play store installed, you should be able to install other common applications. I tested this by installing Chrome and it worked well.

How to update the data in listview in Xamarin.Forms?

First you add a new class as a ViewModel like:

public class RoomViewModel : BaseViewModel
{
   [here following code]
}

If you don't have BaseViewModel try to download from nuget Refractored.MvvmHelpers. Then in your class define an observable collection like

  public ObservableCollection<RoomRecommandation> _roomSuggestionList = 
               new ObservableCollection<RoomRecommandation>();
  
  public ObservableCollection<RoomRecommandation> Recommendations
  {
     get { return _roomSuggestionList; }
  }

In your ContentPage add a listview like:

<ListView ItemsSource="{Binding Recommendations}">
 <ListView.ItemTemplate>
   <DataTemplate>
     <ViewCell>
       <Grid Padding="10" RowSpacing="10" ColumnSpacing="10">
         <Grid.RowDefinitions>
           <RowDefinition Height="" />
         </Grid.RowDefinitions>
         <Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
           <ColumnDefinition Width="Auto" />
           <ColumnDefinition Width="" />
           <ColumnDefinition Width="Auto" />
         </Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
         <controls:CircleImage Grid.Column="0" BorderColor="#DDD3CB" 
                               BorderThickness="3" WidthRequest="66"
                               HorizontalOptions="CenterAndExpand" 
                               VerticalOptions="CenterAndExpand" 
                               Aspect="AspectFill" 
                               Source="{Binding Image}" />
         <Label Grid.Column="1" Text="{Binding Description}" 
                               VerticalOptions="Start" />
         <Label Grid.Column="2" Text="{Binding Price, StringFormat='£{0}'"
                               FontSize="Small" VerticalOptions="Start" />
        </Grid>
      </ViewCell>
    </DataTemplate>
  </ListView.ItemTemplate>
 </ListView>

Then in your ContentPage code:

  RoomViewModel vm = null;
  public RoomPage ()
  {
      InitializeComponent ();
      LoadData();
  }

  public void LoadData()
  {
      if (vm == null)
      {
          vm = new RoomViewModel();
          BindingContext = vm;
      }
  }

Happy coding!

Xamarin Forms MasterDetail Page Navigation Recipe

In this recipe I will show you how to add a hamburger menu to your Xamarin Forms application using the MasterDetailPage class. The Xamarin.Forms MasterDetail Page consists of one page for the master and one or more pages for the detail.

When used for the main navigation, as in this recipe, we will have a single master page and 4 detail pages. The code for this recipe comes from the Xamarin Forms CRM sample. I have simplified and streamlined the code, and a full Xamarin Studio solution is included at the bottom of this post.

Xamarin.Forms MasterDetail

Think of the MasterDetailPage as the traffic cop of your application navigation. When a user clicks on the hamburger menu, Xamarin.Forms MasterDetail pushes the menu onto the screen. Then when the user taps on a menu item, MasterDetail creates the target page and pushes it onto the stack. Besides those two things, and some styling, MasterDetail doesn’t do much. Have a look at the code.

public class RootPage : MasterDetailPage
{
	public RootPage ()
	{
		var menuPage = new MenuPage ();
		menuPage.Menu.ItemSelected += (sender, e) => 
                             NavigateTo (e.SelectedItem as MenuItem);
		Master = menuPage;
		Detail = new NavigationPage (new ContractsPage ());
	}

	void NavigateTo (MenuItem menu)
	{
		Page displayPage = (Page)Activator.CreateInstance (menu.TargetType);
		Detail = new NavigationPage (displayPage);
		IsPresented = false;
	}
}

Pretty simple right? The only complicated bit is with the (Page)Activator.CreateInstance (menu.TargetType) part, but if you have been doing C# on .Net for a while, you probably have seen it before. All it is, is another way of creating objects.

MasterBehavior

In Xamarin.Forms 1.3, the Xamarin.Forms MasterDetail MasterDetail Page received a new property called MasterBehavior. This property controls how the menu will react when activated. The enumeration MasterBehavior has a few options and they are:

public enum MasterBehavior
{
    Default,
    Popover,
    Split,
    SplitOnLandscape,
    SplitOnPortrait
}

The normal behavior of the MasterDetailPage in landscape mode is “SplitOnLandscape”. I think splitting is normal when using the MasterDetailPage for detail drill in type navigation but not when using it as a hamburger menu or your apps main navigation. When using the MasterDetailPage for app navigation, I set the behavior to popover.

The Menu Page

The menu page is just what the name implies, it’s the Xamarin Forms page that will be shown when the user clicks the menu button. This is the master part of the Xamarin.Forms MasterDetail Page. Our MenuPage is a simple content page with a StackLayout containing a label and a ListView of our menu items.

Please note the public property Menu. This property allows our MasterDetail page access to the ItemSelected event. When the event is fired, the item selected will be sent to the NavigateTo method on the master detail object.

public class MenuPage : ContentPage
{
	public ListView Menu { get; set; }

	public MenuPage ()
	{
		Icon = "settings.png";
		Title = "menu"; // The Title property must be set.
		BackgroundColor = Color.FromHex ("333333");

		Menu = new MenuListView ();

		var menuLabel = new ContentView {
			Padding = new Thickness (10, 36, 0, 5),
			Content = new Label {
				TextColor = Color.FromHex ("AAAAAA"),
				Text = "MENU", 
			}
		};

		var layout = new StackLayout { 
			Spacing = 0, 
			VerticalOptions = LayoutOptions.FillAndExpand
		};
		layout.Children.Add (menuLabel);
		layout.Children.Add (Menu);

		Content = layout;
	}
}

Menu Item

Menu Item is a simple type that holds our menu data and the most important data is the Target type. When a user clicks on a menu item, the NavigateTo method will create a new page from the TargetType, and push that page onto the stack.

public class MenuItem
{
	public string Title { get; set; }
	public string IconSource { get; set; }
	public Type TargetType { get; set; }
}

Menu List View

The menu list view couldn’t be simpler; we use the built in ImageCell for the rows and set the bindings to the properties on the MenuItem type. We set the first item as the selected item and also used it when constructing the MasterDetail Page initial detail class.

public class MenuListView : ListView
{
	public MenuListView ()
	{
		List data = new MenuListData ();

		ItemsSource = data;
		VerticalOptions = LayoutOptions.FillAndExpand;
		BackgroundColor = Color.Transparent;

		var cell = new DataTemplate (typeof(ImageCell));
		cell.SetBinding (TextCell.TextProperty, "Title");
		cell.SetBinding (ImageCell.ImageSourceProperty, "IconSource");

		ItemTemplate = cell;
	}
}

Menu List Data

The MenuListData class is a data structure holding our applications navigation. In your app you could get this data from the database or configuration file. The menu structure of my application doesn’t change much, so I just use code.

public class MenuListData : List
{
	public MenuListData ()
	{
		this.Add (new MenuItem () { 
			Title = "Contracts", 
			IconSource = "contracts.png", 
			TargetType = typeof(ContractsPage)
		});

		this.Add (new MenuItem () { 
			Title = "Leads", 
			IconSource = "Lead.png", 
			TargetType = typeof(LeadsPage)
		});

		this.Add (new MenuItem () { 
			Title = "Accounts", 
			IconSource = "Accounts.png", 
			TargetType = typeof(AccountsPage)
		});

		this.Add (new MenuItem () {
			Title = "Opportunities",
			IconSource = "Opportunity.png",
			TargetType = typeof(OpportunitiesPage)
		});
	}
}

The Content Pages

These pages are what is created when a user clicks on our menu items.

public class ContractsPage : ContentPage
{
	public ContractsPage (){}
}

public class LeadsPage : ContentPage
{
	public LeadsPage (){}
}

public class AccountsPage : ContentPage
{
	public AccountsPage (){}
}

public class OpportunitiesPage : ContentPage
{
	public OpportunitiesPage (){}
}

Download the source code PSC-MasterDetail.zip (79.74 kb)

Happy coding!

Xamarin Studio: complete uninstall on Mac

Remove these directories:

/Applications/Xamarin Studio.app
/Developer/MonoTouch
/Developer/MonoAndroid
/Library/Frameworks/Mono.framework
/Library/Frameworks/Xamarin.Mac.framework
/Library/Frameworks/Xamarin.Android.framework

Locations in your user directory:

~/Library/Caches/Xamarin
~/Library/Caches/XamarinStudio-4.0
~/Library/Developer/Xamarin
~/Library/Developer/XamarinStudio
~/Library/Logs/Xamarin
~/Library/Logs/XamarinStudio-4.0
~/Library/Preferences/Xamarin
~/Library/Preferences/XamarinStudio-4.0
~/Library/Xamarin
~/Library/Xamarin.Mac
~/Library/MonoTouch
~/Library/MonoAndroid
~/Library/XamarinStudio-4.0

That's all there is afaik.

ASP.NET LinkButton: children disappears after postback

I have a LinkButton with image and label inside it or tags i and span as in the following picture.example_linkbutton

The code in the page is:

<asp:LinkButton ID="LinkButton1" runat="server">
    <i class="glyphicon glyphicon-plus"></i>
    <span class="js-add-button" runat="server" id="Span1">Add New</span>
</asp:LinkButton>

After a postback everything inside the LinkButton disappeared. I've spent two days to understand why and the solution is very easy.

<asp:LinkButton ID="LinkButton1" runat="server">
    <i class="glyphicon glyphicon-plus" runat="server"></i>
    <span class="js-add-button" runat="server" id="Span1">Add New</span>
</asp:LinkButton>

The tag i doesn't have runat="server" and for that you lost all content inside the LinkButton.

Happy coding!

Remove multiple line in the same file with C#

Read the file, remove the multiple line (but it saves one of them) in memory and put the contents back to the file (overwriting) and create a backup file with the original file.

 

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.IO;
using System.Linq;

namespace DelMultiLine {
   class Program {
      static void Main(string[] args) {
         if (args.Count() == 0 || args.Count() > 2) {
            Console.WriteLine("\nDelMultiLine (by Enrico Rossini - puresourcecode.com)");
            Console.WriteLine("-----------------------------------------------------------------------");
            Console.WriteLine("Remove duplicate line in a file\n");
            Console.WriteLine("Usage:");
            Console.WriteLine("   delmultiline <Filename> <resultFilename>\n");
            Console.WriteLine("filename:       define a full path for the file you want to elaborate");
            Console.WriteLine("resultFilename: define the full path for the original file for a backup");
            Environment.Exit(0);
         }

         string file1 = args[0];
         string file2 = "";

         if (args.Count() == 1) {
            if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(file2)) {
               file2 = file1 + ".old";
            }
            else {
               file2 = args[1];
            }
         }

         Console.WriteLine(string.Format("Reading {0} in progress...", args[0]));
         string[] lines = File.ReadAllLines(file1);
         List<string> newline = new List<string>();

         for (int i = 0; i < lines.Length; i++) {
            newline.Add(lines[i]);
         }

         Console.WriteLine("Deleting multiple line in progress...");
         for (int i = 0; i < lines.Length; i++) {
            List<string> temp = new List<string>();
            int duplicate_count = 0;

            for (int j = newline.Count - 1; j >= 0; j--) {
               //checking for duplicate records
               if (lines[i] != newline[j])
                  temp.Add(newline[j]);
               else {
                  duplicate_count++;
                  if (duplicate_count == 1)
                     temp.Add(lines[i]);
               }
            }
            newline = temp;
         }

         // reverse the array
         newline.Reverse();

         //assigning into a string array
         string[] newFile = newline.ToArray();
         newline.Sort();

         // move the original file in a new location
         Console.WriteLine(string.Format("Copying original file in {0}", args[0]));
         File.Move(file1, file2);

         //now writing the data to a text file
         Console.WriteLine(string.Format("Write new file {0}", args[0]));
         File.WriteAllLines(file1, newFile);

         Console.WriteLine("Convertion is finished.");
         Console.WriteLine("\nPress any key to continue...");
         Console.ReadLine();
      }
   }
}

Happy coding!

Dijkstra's Algorithm in C# with Generics

I recently needed to to implement a shortest-path algorithm (to identify preferred domain controllers using site link costs) and I found Dijkstra's Algorithm

Path class

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

namespace DijkstraAlgorithm {
   public class Path<T> {
      public T Source { get; set; }

      public T Destination { get; set; }

      /// <summary>
      /// Cost of using this path from Source to Destination
      /// </summary>
      /// 
      /// Lower costs are preferable to higher costs
      /// </remarks>
      public int Cost { get; set; }
   }
}

ExtensionMethods class

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

namespace DijkstraAlgorithm {
   public static class ExtensionMethods {
      /// <summary>
      /// Adds or Updates the dictionary to include the destination and its associated cost 
      /// and complete path (and param arrays make paths easier to work with)
      /// </summary>
      public static void Set<T>(this Dictionary<T, KeyValuePair<int, LinkedList<Path<T>>>> Dictionary, 
                                T destination, int Cost, params Path<T>[] paths) {
         var CompletePath = paths == null ? new LinkedList<Path<T>>() : new LinkedList<Path<T>>(paths);
         Dictionary[destination] = new KeyValuePair<int, LinkedList<Path<T>>>(Cost, CompletePath);
      }
   }
}

Engine class

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

namespace DijkstraAlgorithm {
   /// <summary>
   /// Calculates the best route between various paths, using Dijkstra's algorithm
   /// </summary>
   public static class Engine {
      public static LinkedList<Path<T>> CalculateShortestPathBetween<T>(T source, T destination, IEnumerable<Path<T>> Paths) {
         return CalculateFrom(source, Paths)[destination];
      }

      public static Dictionary<T, LinkedList<Path<T>>> CalculateShortestFrom<T>(T source, IEnumerable<Path<T>> Paths) {
         return CalculateFrom(source, Paths);
      }

      private static Dictionary<T, LinkedList<Path<T>>> CalculateFrom<T>(T source, IEnumerable<Path<T>> Paths) {
         // validate the paths
         if (Paths.Any(p => p.Source.Equals(p.Destination)))
            throw new ArgumentException("No path can have the same source and destination");

         // keep track of the shortest paths identified thus far
         Dictionary<T, KeyValuePair<int, LinkedList<Path<T>>>> ShortestPaths = new Dictionary<T, KeyValuePair<int, LinkedList<Path<T>>>>();

         // keep track of the locations which have been completely processed
         List<T> LocationsProcessed = new List<T>();

         // include all possible steps, with Int.MaxValue cost
         Paths.SelectMany(p => new T[] { p.Source, p.Destination })           // union source and destinations
                 .Distinct()                                                  // remove duplicates
                 .ToList()                                                    // ToList exposes ForEach
                 .ForEach(s => ShortestPaths.Set(s, Int32.MaxValue, null));   // add to ShortestPaths with MaxValue cost

         // update cost for self-to-self as 0; no path
         ShortestPaths.Set(source, 0, null);

         // keep this cached
         var LocationCount = ShortestPaths.Keys.Count;

         while (LocationsProcessed.Count < LocationCount) {
            T _locationToProcess = default(T);

            //Search for the nearest location that isn't handled
            foreach (T _location in ShortestPaths.OrderBy(p => p.Value.Key).Select(p => p.Key).ToList()) {
               if (!LocationsProcessed.Contains(_location)) {
                  if (ShortestPaths[_location].Key == Int32.MaxValue)
                     return ShortestPaths.ToDictionary(k => k.Key, v => v.Value.Value); //ShortestPaths[destination].Value;

                  _locationToProcess = _location;
                  break;
               }
            } // foreach

            var _selectedPaths = Paths.Where(p => p.Source.Equals(_locationToProcess));

            foreach (Path<T> path in _selectedPaths) {
               if (ShortestPaths[path.Destination].Key > path.Cost + ShortestPaths[path.Source].Key) {
                  ShortestPaths.Set(
                      path.Destination,
                      path.Cost + ShortestPaths[path.Source].Key,
                      ShortestPaths[path.Source].Value.Union(new Path<T>[] { path }).ToArray());
               }
            }

            //Add the location to the list of processed locations
            LocationsProcessed.Add(_locationToProcess);
         } // while

         return ShortestPaths.ToDictionary(k => k.Key, v => v.Value.Value);
         //return ShortestPaths[destination].Value;
      }
   }
}

Test

using System.Linq;
using DijkstraAlgorithm;
using FluentAssertions;
using Microsoft.VisualStudio.TestTools.UnitTesting;

namespace UnitTestProject1 {
   [TestClass]
   public class UnitTest1 {
      [TestMethod]
      public void Calculate_A_to_D_given_AB_BC_CD__should_be__ABCD() {
         var Results = Engine.CalculateShortestPathBetween(
             "A",
             "D",
             new Path<string>[] {
                new Path<string>() { Source = "A", Destination = "B", Cost = 3 },
                new Path<string>() { Source = "B", Destination = "C", Cost = 3 },
                new Path<string>() { Source = "C", Destination = "D", Cost = 3 }
             });

         Results.Sum(r => r.Cost).Should().Be(9);
         Results.Count.Should().Be(3);

         Results.First().Cost.Should().Be(3);
         Results.First().Source.Should().Be("A");
         Results.First().Destination.Should().Be("B");

         Results.Skip(1).First().Cost.Should().Be(3);
         Results.Skip(1).First().Source.Should().Be("B");
         Results.Skip(1).First().Destination.Should().Be("C");

         Results.Skip(2).First().Cost.Should().Be(3);
         Results.Skip(2).First().Source.Should().Be("C");
         Results.Skip(2).First().Destination.Should().Be("D");
      }

      [TestMethod]
      public void Calculate_A_to_D_given_AB_BC_CD_DE__should_be__ABCD() {
         var Results = Engine.CalculateShortestPathBetween(
             "A",
             "D",
             new Path<string>[] {
                new Path<string>() { Source = "A", Destination = "B", Cost = 3 },
                new Path<string>() { Source = "B", Destination = "C", Cost = 3 },
                new Path<string>() { Source = "C", Destination = "D", Cost = 3 },
                new Path<string>() { Source = "D", Destination = "E", Cost = 3 }
             });

         Results.Sum(r => r.Cost).Should().Be(9);
         Results.Count.Should().Be(3);

         Results.First().Cost.Should().Be(3);
         Results.First().Source.Should().Be("A");
         Results.First().Destination.Should().Be("B");

         Results.Skip(1).First().Cost.Should().Be(3);
         Results.Skip(1).First().Source.Should().Be("B");
         Results.Skip(1).First().Destination.Should().Be("C");

         Results.Skip(2).First().Cost.Should().Be(3);
         Results.Skip(2).First().Source.Should().Be("C");
         Results.Skip(2).First().Destination.Should().Be("D");
      }

      [TestMethod]
      public void Calculate_A_to_D_given_AB_AC_AD_AE_BC_CD_DE__should_be__ACD() {
         var Results = Engine.CalculateShortestPathBetween(
             "A",
             "D",
             new Path<string>[] {
                new Path<string>() { Source = "A", Destination = "B", Cost = 3 },
                new Path<string>() { Source = "A", Destination = "C", Cost = 3 },
                new Path<string>() { Source = "A", Destination = "D", Cost = 7 }, // set this just above ABC (3+3=6)
                new Path<string>() { Source = "A", Destination = "E", Cost = 3 },
                new Path<string>() { Source = "B", Destination = "C", Cost = 3 },
                new Path<string>() { Source = "C", Destination = "D", Cost = 3 },
                new Path<string>() { Source = "D", Destination = "E", Cost = 3 }
             });

         Results.Sum(r => r.Cost).Should().Be(6);
         Results.Count.Should().Be(2);

         Results.First().Cost.Should().Be(3);
         Results.First().Source.Should().Be("A");
         Results.First().Destination.Should().Be("C");

         Results.Skip(1).First().Cost.Should().Be(3);
         Results.Skip(1).First().Source.Should().Be("C");
         Results.Skip(1).First().Destination.Should().Be("D");
      }

      [TestMethod]
      public void Calculate_A_to_D_given_AB_AC_AD_AE_BC_CD_DE__should_be__AD() {
         var Results = Engine.CalculateShortestPathBetween(
             "A",
             "D",
             new Path<string>[] {
                new Path<string>() { Source = "A", Destination = "B", Cost = 3 },
                new Path<string>() { Source = "A", Destination = "C", Cost = 3 },
                new Path<string>() { Source = "A", Destination = "D", Cost = 5 }, // set this just below ABC (3+3=6)
                new Path<string>() { Source = "A", Destination = "E", Cost = 3 },
                new Path<string>() { Source = "B", Destination = "C", Cost = 3 },
                new Path<string>() { Source = "C", Destination = "D", Cost = 3 },
                new Path<string>() { Source = "D", Destination = "E", Cost = 3 }
             });

         Results.Sum(r => r.Cost).Should().Be(5);
         Results.Count.Should().Be(1);

         Results.Single().Cost.Should().Be(5);
         Results.Single().Source.Should().Be("A");
         Results.Single().Destination.Should().Be("D");
      }
   }
}

You can find the code on GitHub.

Happy coding!

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